Call, Confirmation, and Change of Church Leaders
- Scriptural Concepts and Examples
- Implications for Leadership Ministries in the Mennonite Church
- Some Practical Guidelines
Ordination as the official act by which someone is formally authorized to perform the duties of a ministerial office in the church developed after the New Testament. This happened for several reasons. Some of them were valid and others questionable. They included: the attempt to provide order among the ministries of the church, a need to distinguish between true and false claims to authority, and the growing influence of hierarchical forms of government in the church. Whether the traditional pattern of ordination is the best way to meet these needs should be reexamined in the light of the New Testament and the experiences of church history.
The New Testament does not give us a definite and detailed concept of ordination. Nor does the New Testament prescribe one way of recognizing leadership ministries. It gives certain guidelines which provide standards for faithfulness in our time. What are, therefore, the distinctive characteristics of calling and appointing church leaders in the New Testament?
1. Approximately twelve Greek words with different shades of meaning are translated "ordain" in the King James translation. Some refer simply to actions such as commanding (1 Corinthians 7:17), or deciding (Acts 16:4). Others mean the action of selecting, recognizing, or appointing people to particular ministries.
The action of designating and recognizing certain individuals for ministries
is described by several words in the original Greek:
-- "And he made twelve to be with him, and to be sent out to preach ... " Mark 3:14 (literal translation).
--"Select from among you seven men of good repute ... whom we may prepare for this duty" (Acts 6:3, literal translation).
--"Set apart for me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them" (Acts 13:2).
--"He has been appointed by the churches" (2 Corinthians 8:19, compare Acts 14:23).
--"That you might place elders in every town ... as I directed you" (Titus 1:5, literal translation).
Of the twelve Greek words translated "ordain" in the King James Version, two are based on the Greek root "tasso." They come closest to the word family of "ordain" in English. However, none of the places where the KJV translates these two words "ordain" refers to offices in the church. The passages which use this Greek root for tasks in the church are as follows:
--Acts 15:2, "Paul and Bamabas and some of the others were appointed
(KJV--determine) to go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and the elders about this
--Acts 22:10, "And the Lord said to me, `Rise, and go into Damascus, and there you will be told all that is appointed (KJV-appointed) for you to do.' "
--1 Corinthians 16:15, "You know that the household of Stephanas were the first converts in Achaia, and they have devoted themselves (KJV-addicted) to the saints."
--A related word which is properly translated "command" is used in 1 Timothy 1:1 and Titus 1:3 to say that Paul is an apostle "by the command of God our Savior" and Paul has been entrusted with preaching "by command of God our Savior."
The New Testament clearly recognizes specific and various ministries in the church. But there is no one concept which clearly covers the act of recognizing and appointing people to particular ministries. Nor is there one such term which refers to one group of people in the church who share in the church's ministries, as distinguished from those who do not.
Each of these terms, understood in their contexts, refers to choosing, preparing, naming, and recognizing certain people for particular ministries within the congregation or in the church's service and mission in the world. These actions of choosing, appointing, or recognizing persons for ministry, included prayer, the leading of the Holy Spirit, the concerted discernment of the churches, or the completion of the apostolic mission.
2. The "laying on of hands" has usually been associated with ordination. But in the New Testament the laying on of hands is not limited to ordination. Nor does the appointment to a particular ministry always happen with the laying on of hands. Furthermore, the laying on of hands may symbolize slightly different things. In Acts 6:1-6, the seven were filled with the Holy Spirit and wisdom before hands were laid on them. Paul reminded Timothy of the time hands were laid on him and gave this as an additional reason why Timothy should develop his God-given gifts. But he also said that the gift was given by "prophetic utterance" (1 Timothy 4:14ff., 2 Timothy 1:6). Nothing is said of hands having been laid upon Titus, even though he had a specific ministry in the church. The apostle Paul does not seem to regard the time when hands were laid upon him, Acts 13:1-4, as his ordination in the usual sense of the word. Paul and Barnabas appointed elders in every church with prayer and fasting, but no clear mode of appointment such as laying on of hands is indicated (Acts 14:33). Jesus appointed the twelve disciples to particular tasks and gave them authority to carry out those tasks. We are told nothing about the mode of that appointment, or whether he laid hands on them.
We may conclude that the laying on of hands was often, but not necessarily always used, as a part of designating persons to a specific task or ministry. It apparently meant something like its use in baptism, prayers for healing, and benediction. It symbolized definiteness. It indicated the focusing of prayers and the charge of the congregation to the person. It gave that person a clear sense of being recognized for a specific ministry or task in the church. It apparently symbolized solidarity and fellowship. It may have indicated the recognition of a certain order and of continuity in the life and ministries of the church. It showed a relationship of accountability between the appointed persons, and the appointing body. Finally, it symbolized God's leading in the individual's and church's life.
In this manner the appointment of persons, sometimes accompanied by the laying on of hands, was a means of authorizing the person to exercise a particular ministry. This authorization may be understood as a conferred authority. The actual exercise of this ministry then confirms this authority or makes it questionable (see pages 16ff. ).
3. Who may appoint others for a particular task or ministry? The New Testament does not offer one detailed answer. For example:
a. Acts 6:6 is often understood to mean that only the apostles prayed and laid their hands on the seven; grammatically, it can mean that the larger group of disciples prayed and laid their hands on the seven. In either case, both the larger community and the apostles shared in the discernment and appointment of the seven.
b. In Acts 13:1-3, prophets and teachers participated in praying, laying hands on, and sending out Paul and Barnabas.
c. According to Acts 14:23, both Paul and Barnabas appointed elders in each church. Although Paul was an apostle and Barnabas a teacher (as well as an apostle according to Acts 14:14), we do not know whether either was considered a bishop or elder as such.
We may conclude that appointing, selecting, and setting apart specific persons to a particular ministry was not limited to a particular office in the New Testament church. It depends on the leading of the Holy Spirit and an orderly process of discerning the mind of Christ. In the New Testament examples, this process usually was moderated, although not always, and implemented by those who shared in the oversight responsibilities of the appointing body.
4. The call and qualifications for leadership ministries is spoken to in the Bible. Some recent biblical interpretation has suggested that baptism should be understood as ordination. Because all Christians share in the ministry of the church (Ephesians 4:7 and Ephesians 12; 1 Corinthians 12:7) and because all share in the priesthood of the believers (1 Peter 3:9), the baptism of all is understood as their ordination. Furthermore, the New Testament emphasizes that the entire church is the body of Christ and the household of God.
It does not divide the church into clergy and laity. Finally, one may point to the baptism of Jesus himself, which was his "call" and "setting apart" at the beginning of his public ministry.
This interpretation cannot however point to a clear identification of baptism with the recognition of a particular ministry or leadership function in the life of the church. It correctly underlines the New Testament teaching that all are given ministries and gifts in the church. But it does this in a way which apparently differs from the New Testament Scriptures.
Several New Testament passages explicitly describe or implicitly indicate the qualifications for leadership ministries in the Christian community. These include spiritual, personal, and experiential qualifications, such as:
--Recognizable gifts and abilities to exercise the particular ministry to
which one is appointed.
--Both spiritual and personal maturity.
--Loyalty to the apostolic teaching and example in the midst of contemporary challenges.
--Moral integrity, particularly with respect to the temptations ofpower and privilege, as well as to general Christian conduct.
In addition, there are a few New Testament references to a personal sense of purpose and direction which we have come to describe as being called to a particular ministry. This sense of call may precede a formal appointment by the Christian community. It may develop largely on the basis of the church's guidance. In either case, both a personal sense of call and the church's call to and appointment to particular ministries mutually confirm each other and provide a means for discerning divine guidance.
5. Is an appointment for life or the duration of a specific ministry? The New Testament does not explicitly speak to the question of whether ordination is for life or only for the active exercise of a specific ministry. Guidelines for responding to this issue and for an appropriate practice should be derived from the New Testament vision of the church and the exercise of gifts and ministries in the church's life and mission (see page 44ff. ).
6. There are no specific references to the ordination of women in the New Testament. Women exercised specific ministries, with certain limitations, in the life and leadership of the New Testament churches. There are no specific references to "appointing," "setting apart," "selecting" and "placing" women in leadership ministries. Other than for the teaching ministry (compare pages 19ff. ), there is no explicit rejection of women for church ministries. There are instances where women are recognized as exercising ministries for which, in some cases, men were specifically" selected" or" set apart."
It is possible to say that there is no explicit affirmation or example of ordination of women to the ministries they exercised in the New Testament church. Such a statement has only limited significance, because the New Testament does not have a uniform concept or practice of "ordination."
Because of the diversity as well as the recurring characteristics in the New Testament, we are challenged to seek an appropriate language and pattern for confirming church leaders. They should seek to be faithful to the direction pointed by Scriptures, to the leading of the Holy Spirit and to the mind of Christ. The tendency to develop levels of ministries or to limit them to one class of Christians should be corrected. Tendencies which undermine genuine authority of leadership ministries in the church should also be corrected.
1. Which concept should be used?
a. There would be good reasons to speak of "commissioning," "appointing," or "calling" people to particular ministries as well as "ordaining" them. For example, the term "appointed" means being recognized and designated for a particular ministry. It also comes closest to the Greek root of the word which is translated "ordained" in the King James Version. This term, as used in Acts 14:23, includes congregational participation (see also Acts 6:1-6). Another example would be the word "commissioned." It could properly be used to mean "the sending" to perform a particular ministry (literally: "sent-with").
b. There would also be reasons to use the concept "ordination," but to expand it from the restricted sense it has come to have in most denominations. (It should then be understood to include the range of New Testament terms outlined in Section 5-A).
c. In discerning which concept or concepts would be most consistent with the New Testament in our time, several things should be taken into account:
--The biblical terms and how they are used in the New Testament as well as
how they have been interpreted in church history.
--The positive and the negative learnings of the churches' experiences with the term and practice of "ordination."
--How the servant authority of leadership ministries in the church can be strengthened in the context of broader church ministries and gifts.
Largely for the reasons of tradition and broader Christian usage, this study suggests that the term "ordination" may be continued. But it should be understood and practiced in a way which includes the entire range of New Testament terms. Ordination would then mean the act by which a person, after appropriate personal and corporate discernment, is formally and publicly appointed to a particular ministry in the life and/or mission of the church. It is fitting that this act takes place in the context of worship and normally includes the laying on of hands, prayer, and other appropriate means of commitment and celebration.
2. Which ministries should be formally recognized and confirmed?
During the past twenty years, there have been several proposals and practices for the extent of ordination in the Mennonite Church.
a. Some have proposed that "ordination" should be limited to "pastors." This assumes that the primary responsibility for congregational leadership rests with the pastor. It singles out the pastor as the one who equips the other ministries in the congregation. Limiting "ordination" to pastors may strengthen pastoral identity and distinguish this leadership function from other ministries.
This option would be questionable from several perspectives. One can hardly make a clear case for it from the New Testament evidence. It appears incompatible with the New Testament pattern of leadership which emphasizes the plurality and diversity of leadership. It is also difficult to clearly define the work of the pastor. Is it primarily preaching? teaching? administering? leading public worship? counseling? all of these or some of them?
Since the pastor may be assisted in several of these tasks by others who do at least some of the same things, should they be "ordained"? If so, then ordination can't be limited to the pastor.
b. Others have proposed that "ordination" should be reserved for the "ministry of the Word." Limiting "ordination" to the ministry of preaching and teaching the Word would point toward the fundamental importance of communicating the Word of God for the establishment, continuity, and direction of the church. The ministry of the spoken Word would in this way be understood as basic for all other ministries.
This position, however, also lacks certain dimensions of the New Testament characteristics of church leadership. It does not sufficiently emphasize the multiplicity and diversity of leadership gifts and ministries which are important for the building up of the church. It seems to diminish the importance of the eldering or oversight function in providing continuity and direction in the church. In the New Testament context this function sometimes included teaching, but sometimes did not.
c. Others have proposed that ordination should include all ministries of continuing church leadership. Those who share in the continuing leadership of the church would be ordained or appointed. This would recognize the importance of the eldering ministries as well as the Word ministries for church leadership. Other specific leadership ministries might also be recognized by ordination, for example, longterm pastoral counselors, ministers of worship, missionaries and church planters, itinerant evangelists, chaplains, etc.
This option would reinforce the multiplicity, diversity, and plurality of ministry and church leadership in the New Testament. It would reflect the New Testament flexibility of having teaching elders as well as others who did not teach. It would continue and change some aspects of the threefold pattern in traditional Mennonite practice. It would not rule out having one or several full-time ministers. But it would normally include them in a larger group of "ordained" leaders.
The line between "ordained" and "unordained" ministries may vary somewhat from congregation to congregation and conference to conference. It could well include those ministries which provide overall leadership in the mission and well-being of the church. This possibility would still likely tend to distinguish between those who are ordained and those who are not as two classes of church members. Such a distinction does not seem fully consistent with New Testament teaching.
d. Some have proposed ordination for all identifiable and discernible ministries. Because all are given gifts and ministries, all members of the church would in some way be ordained.
Ordination for all identifiable and discernible ministries would seem to be most consistent with the New Testament vision that all are given particular gifts and ministries for the life and mission of the church. As such, the New Testament does not give explicit teaching or examples either for or against ordination of all identifiable and discernible ministries.
A practical difficulty may be in finding ways to carry out these implications. It might also appear that the authority of leadership ministries, such as pastors/overseers or teachers or administrators, would be seriously diminished if there were also formal recognition of all other ministries and gifts in the church.
Ordination to all identifiable and discernible ministries could, however, strengthen the authority to exercise all particular gifts and ministries. For example, those called to be pastors and those called to be song leaders would each be ordained for their particular ministries. The authority of each would come from their God-given gifts, from the initial and continuing confirmation by the church, from exercising their ministries for the welfare of the church and its mission, from their mutual submission to each other in the church, and from being accountable for them to the congregation. The authority of pastors would then not be partially based on song leaders not being "ordained."
3. Other considerations should be noted with regard to the appointment to leadership ministries in the church. In the New Testament, the primary considerations for appointment of certain members to leadership ministries are their spiritual and personal qualities, and the gifts and abilities which God has given them in relation to the needs of the church in that place. The distinctive New Testament characteristics also include a pattern of shared leadership ministries and a servant model of authority.
There are also other considerations for the appointment to leadership ministries. These considerations include such things as formal training, financial support, full-time service, lifelong service, and service in church structures outside the local congregation. These considerations may be secondary in some respects. But they should also be taken seriously in choosing members for leadership ministries in the present situation of the Mennonite Church. Even though they will properly vary from person to person, congregation to congregation, and conference to conference, they should be resolved in the framework of the elements which are central for the New Testament vision.
a. The need for preparation and training. Preparation and training for ministry in the church can take place in several ways. Apprenticeship relations between those preparing for leadership ministries and mature ministers, Bible school, college, seminary, supervisory training, in-service education and training, and periodic times for continuing education should be encouraged. These are means of cultivating and strengthening the gifts and ministries of those sharing in church leadership. They help develop the skills and insights which contribute to the edification and mission of the church.
In the light of the New Testament pattern of shared leadership ministries, appropriate preparation and training should however not be limited to pastors, but may well include those preparing for a broad range of ministries in the life of the church.
Schools, colleges, and seminaries provide valuable educational and training opportunities to prepare for or strengthen ministries in the church. However, congregations and conferences have a primary and special responsibility to discern gifts, to call forth members to various ministries, and to provide experience and preparation for ministry.
b. Accountability structures. When persons are appointed or ordained to congregational or broader church ministries, care should be given to having clear lines of accountability. It is helpful to have common ideas about the expectations of the appointing body. There should also be clear understandings of responsibility and who is responsible to whom and for what. This kind of accountability would best include ways in which the growth of those in ministry can be encouraged.
c. Appropriate financial support. In the Mennonite Church, ministers traditionally did not receive full financial support. In the more recent team or one-pastor forms of leadership, financial support has been given to those exercising these ministries. This has led to a tendency to understand financial support as belonging to the one-pastor form of church leadership, but not to other patterns.
In light of the New Testament characteristics of leadership ministries and the nature of the church, it would be more fitting to give financial support according to the time needed for particular ministries, rather than linking it only to a particular office. For example, preaching, teaching, counseling, and other ministries require time for preparation, being available to people, etc. Those appointed to exercise leadership ministries in the life of the church would therefore be supported in proportion to the requirements of their service.
In this fashion, there may be many cases where persons will be fully or partially supported financially; in other cases the practice may vary.
d. Part-time or full-time ministries. In the traditional patterns of leadership, leaders often ministered on a part-time basis. In the more recent one-pastor form of church leadership, there has been a general trend toward full-time ministry, although there may also be exceptions in certain circumstances.
In light of the New Testament vision of leadership ministries and the nature of the church, it would be most fitting to resolve this question according to need and the given ministry rather than linking it only to a particular office. The time involvement should therefore be determined according to what is needed for the edification and mission of the church. In this fashion, there may, for example, be differences in time involvement among those who share in the leadership ministries of a congregation.
e. The prospect of lifelong service in a particular leadership ministry. In traditional Mennonite leadership patterns, those who have been ordained usually served in that ministry in the same place "for life." More recently, greater social mobility, changing patterns of leadership, and employment changes have contributed to uncertainty and a variety of practices.
In view of the New Testament vision of gift ministries in the life and mission of the church, the major considerations for resolving this question include:
--Those whose gifts are discerned and who are appointed to leadership
ministries in the church should be ready to commit themselves without reserve,
but within the context of a designated ministry and place of service.
--Any changes in this appointment and commitment should be made only after appropriate discernment and mutual agreement.
--The appointment to a similar ministry in another setting or to a different ministry should include another process of discernment as well as mutual confirmation and recognition.
--Discontinuation of leadership ministry in general or a particular ministry should also include the appropriate process of discernment, mutual agreement, and recognition.
Thus, the primary concern is neither a lifelong status nor the mobility associated with a particular place of employment. It is the coming together of the church's mission and edification in a specific place and time with the particular gifts and vocations of those appointed to leadership ministries in the church (see Practical Guidelines below).
f. Civil and state regulations. The civil and state laws governing the official recognition of clergy may also be considered as a secondary but important question in the ordination of persons to leadership ministries in the church. Such legal considerations should not however be considered normative for the appointment or understanding of leadership ministries. Rather, those whom the church appoints to carry oat certain functions such as marriage celebrations, etc., can be designated as those whom the state would also recognize.
Because this study focuses on "leadership and leadership authority in the church," it does not offer practical guidelines for the discernment, confirmation of, and appointment to all possible ministries in the church. Further churchwide study and discernment may be needed on these matters. The Board of Congregational Ministries* offers materials and resources to congregations and conferences who wish to pursue these broader issues. Within this study, some practical guidelines are being proposed primarily with respect to leadership ministries such as pastor/eldering, teaching, administrative oversight, evangelism, and church planting.
1. The process which leads from the discernment of particular gifts to the appointment of persons for leadership ministries in the church should include:
--A review of the New Testament characteristics of leadership minis tries and
authority in the church.
--The discernment of how the particular needs and total mission of the church in a given place and the gifts and preparation (formal or informal) of the person(s) being considered correspond with each other.
--The mutual discernment of a local congregation and broaderconference or church representatives as appropriate.
--The participation of a local congregation and broader conference or church representatives, as appropriate, in the public recognition of and appointment to or ordination of persons to specific leadership ministries.
2. Considerations to be weighed with respect to the appointment and/or ordination of women to church ministries are:
--There is in the New Testament, among the sixteenth century Anabaptists and
Mennonites, and in the Dordrecht Confession of Faith a clear precedent for women
to share in leadership ministries in the church.
--The precedent of Dordrecht, which recognized deaconesses as sharing in church "offices," would suggest that women as well as men at least be appointed and/or ordained to specific counseling, administrative, and mutual assistance ministries in the church.
--The example and teaching of the New Testament should lead to seriously considering the appointment and/or ordination of women to other shared leadership ministries in the church, according to the discernment of their particular gifts, and the welfare and mission of the church.
3. Various considerations should be weighed with respect to continuing service, transition to other places of service, or to termination of leadership ministries (see Section 5-B).
There may be valid reasons for periodic reaffirmation as well as for changes of persons in leadership ministries. But Spirit-led discernment and careful process is needed to discriminate between constructive and demoralizing changes. The greater mobility and flexibility of today's society makes changes more credible than in traditional patterns of leadership ministries. But it also undermines continuity, a sense of direction, and a commitment to mutual strengthening of gifts and ministries in difficult times. In many congregations and district conferences, the Mennonite Church today suffers from too little continuity in leadership ministries; in others, an appropriate process of reconfirming an initial call and appointment to leadership ministries is needed.
Careful attention needs therefore to be given to the following matters:
a. Any process of discernment for the continuing service of those in leadership ministries should not be reduced to a popular affirmation measured by a lesser or greater majority vote. It is much more important to agree upon a statement of what any vote actually represents, if voting is used.
b. Any process of discernment for the continuing service of those in leadership ministries should not only ask whether someone should continue or discontinue. It should rather begin with an evaluation of the congregation's performance in its life and mission and how the identifiable gifts and strengths of the person are helping the congregation in its life and mission. If there are discernible areas of weakness in a person's ministry, the primary concern should be ways in which growth can be encouraged, how others in the church can provide support, or how the gifts and ministries of others can be used to strengthen the overall ministry of the church.
c. Any process of discernment for the continuing service of those in leadership ministries should be concerned to discriminate between valid and questionable reasons for support or lack of it. From a biblical and believers' church perspective, broad popular support is a less dependable standard of discernment than a minority conviction which is open to careful testing. Concerns which need to be seriously considered in this context include at least:
--Is there broad popular support primarily because of audience satisfaction
without taking into consideration questions of Christian faithfulness which may
represent a less popular but nevertheless a prophetic and faithful stance?
--Is there a broad support which is based on a joyful consensus that a person's gifts and ministries are contributing to the life and mission of the church in difficult as well as in easier situations?
--Is a possible lack of popular support based simply on general dissatisfaction? Or is there a careful consensus that a person's gifts and ministry can make a more constructive contribution to the life and mission of the church with some modifications either in the kind or place of ministry?
--Is there a willingness to take persons in leadership ministries seriously as brothers and sisters whose personal and spiritual welfare is foremost?
--In cases of controversy, is there the willingness for direct conversation at the points of disagreement and offense (Matthew 18:15-18; 1 Timothy 5:19)? Is there openness to broader testing with the help of trusted leaders from another congregation or from conference, rather than the insistence on "solving our own problems"?
4. Some congregations and conferences have adopted the practice of licensing persons for leadership ministries. Licensing (some conferences call this commissioning) is sometimes a way of recognizing and approving a particular ministry. Sometimes it is done for a probationary period of one to three years and may be followed by ordination. The probationary period may also lead to the conclusion that longer-term ministry and ordination are not appropriate.
Licensing (or commissioning) is sometimes understood as a way of approving the exercise of a particular task for which ordination has not seemed appropriate. In this case, licensing does not normally lead to ordination. It is limited to a particular task and is valid as long as such a task is being carried out.
In reviewing this practice several considerations should be taken into account:
a. Licensing may be understood primarily as a way of testing someone's gifts and skills in the exercise of a particular ministry. In this case, the structures of accountability and the discernment process are very important. It may be that serving as an intern, an assistant, or as an apprentice with an experienced person in ministry would also be an appropriate means of testing. If the practice of licensing leads to the understanding that being "ordained" to a particular ministry depends upon successive stages leading from lay to ordained status, it should be discouraged as undermining the New Testament vision of leadership ministries.
b. The practice of licensing should also be reviewed in the light of the New Testament teaching and example with respect to which ministries are considered for ordination. We have already seen that ordination for all who share in ministries of continuing leadership (see Section 5-B) or for all identifiable and discernible ministries (see Section 5-B) are more biblical than appointing or ordaining only pastors or only those who preach and teach. If licensing is used as a means of testing and discerning gifts, it should be compatible with the New Testament pattern of recognizing gifts and ministries.
Seven Articles of
Schleitheim (Anabaptist, 1527)
Dordrecht Confession of Faith (Mennonite, 1632)
Mennonite Confession of Faith (Mennonite Church, 1963)
Biblical Understandings Concerning Women and Men (Mennonite Church, 1975)
Confession of Faith in a Mennonite Perspective (Mennonite Church/General Conference Mennonite Church, 1995)
©1996-2013 by the Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. All rights reserved.
MLA style: Mennonite Church. "Call, Confirmation, and Change of Church Leaders." Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. 1981. Web. 18 May 2013. http://www.gameo.org/encyclopedia/contents/L42.html/L42_5.html.
APA style: Mennonite Church. (1981). Call, Confirmation, and Change of Church Leaders. Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved 18 May 2013, from http://www.gameo.org/encyclopedia/contents/L42.html/L42_5.html.