Groß Wickerau and Klein Wickerau (Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland)
|Wickerau (now Wikrowo, Poland)
Source: Wikipedia Commons
Groß Wickerau (also known as Gross Wickerau, Wikrowo Duże, and Wikrowo Wielki; population in 1905, 233) and Klein Wickerau (also known as Wikrowo Małe; population in 1905, 163), now collectively known as Wikrowo (formerly known as Wickerau; coordinates: 54.101, 19.701 [54° 6′ 3″ N, 19° 42′ 3″ E]; population in 2013, 50), located approximately 6 kilometres (4 miles) north of Pasłęk (Preußisch Holland), 20 km. (12 mi.) east of Elbląg (Elbing), and 64 km. (40 mi.) north-west of the regional capital Olsztyn (Allenstein).
|Detailed map of Groß Wickerau and Klein Wickerau, early 20th century.
Source: Archiwum Map Zachodniej Polski
Klein Wickerau was probably founded in the pre-Teutonic Order period. It was first mentioned in 1357. In the early 14th century Klein Wickerau had a manor, which initially belonged to the Teutonic Knights, then to the Elbing Bridgettines, a monastic religious order of Augustinian nuns, and in the 16th century, to the city of Elbląg (Elbing). The village of Groß Wickerau was first mentioned in 1395; the name probably referred to the manor. Klein Wickerau was established in 1590 as a result of division of the manor land. The village was settled by Dutch Mennonite colonists. In 1715, the two settlements formed a single village. The land of the Stutthof estate (present day Helenowo) was part of Wickerau. At the end of the 18th century, the village had 28 homesteads, and 36 Mennonites. In 1890, the northern section of the village was incorporated into the village of Władysławowo (Ellerwald 1.Trift). At the beginning of the 20th century, Wickerau had 229 residents and 347 hectares of land.
Until 1772 the village was located in what was known as Royal Prussia (also known as Polish Prussia) in the Kingdom of Poland. The First Partition of Poland in 1772 resulted in the creation of a new province in 1773, called West Prussia, in which the village was located. The village was situated in the district (Kreis) of Elbing until the end of World War I, when it came under the jurisdiction of the German province of East Prussia. The village came under the control of Nazi Germany during World War II until February 1945, when it was occupied by Soviet forces and returned to Poland. In 2013 Wickerau (now Wikrowo) was a village in the administrative district of Gmina Pasłęk, within Elbląg County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship.
The 1776 Prussian census lists nine Mennonite families in Groß Wickerau with the following surnames: Allert, Dick, Epp, Gerbrand, Kettler, Klein, Schmidt, Steffen, and Warckentin. The same census lists 10 Mennonite families in Klein Wickerau with the following surnames: Claasen, Hiebert, Penner, von Riesen, Westerwick, Wiebe, and Wieler. In 1820 Groß Wickerau had 111 inhabitants, including 55 Mennonites, and Klein Wickerau had 104 inhabitants, including 37 Mennonites.
Mennonites who were residents of Groß Wickerau and Klein Wickerau were members of the Ellerwald Mennonite Church.
Stowarzyszenie Konserwatorów Zabytków. "Wikrowo (Wikrowo Małe, Wikrowo Wielki, PGR Wikrowo)." Catalogue of Monuments of Dutch Colonization in Poland. 2005. Web. 2 February 2013. http://holland.org.pl/art.php?kat=obiekt&id=469&lang=en.
Wikipedia. "Wikrowo, Gmina Pasłęk." Web. 2 February 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikrowo,_Gmina_Pasłęk.
Wolf, Hans-Jürgen. "Familienforschung in Westpreußen." Web. 2 February 2013. http://www.westpreussen.de/cms/ct/ortsverzeichnis/details.php?ID=3280.
©1996-2013 by the Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. All rights reserved.
MLA style: Thiessen, Richard D. "Groß Wickerau and Klein Wickerau (Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland)." Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. February 2013. Web. 23 May 2013. http://www.gameo.org/encyclopedia/contents/gros_wickerau_and_klein_wickerau_warmian_masurian_voivodeship_poland.
APA style: Thiessen, Richard D. (February 2013). Groß Wickerau and Klein Wickerau (Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland). Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved 23 May 2013, from http://www.gameo.org/encyclopedia/contents/gros_wickerau_and_klein_wickerau_warmian_masurian_voivodeship_poland.