Krummhörn (Niedersachsen, Germany)
Krummhörn (Dutch, Kromhorn) is a district of East Friesland, Germany, located northwest of Emden, between Emden and Greetsiel west of the line Emden-Wirdum, which in former times had a large Anabaptist-Mennonite population. In 1551-1561 Leenaert Bouwens baptized in the village of Wirdum (1 baptism, 3 baptismal candidates), Hinte (1 baptism), Groothausen (1 baptism, 2 candidates), and especially in Hamswehrum (3 baptisms, 9 candidates), making a total of 6 baptisms and 15 baptismal candidates. In 1563-1565 he baptized in Wirdum (5 baptisms, 28 candidates), Woquard (1 baptism, 2 candidates), Wybelsum (4 baptisms, 9 candidates), and Pewsum (3 baptisms, 5 candidates), a total of 13 baptisms and 44 candidates. In 1633 there were in the Krummhörn, from north to south along the west bank, the following numbers of families: Greetsiel 1, Hauen 4, Pilsum 3, Manslagt 1, Groothusen 5, Hamswehrum 9, Upleward 3, and Heiselhusen 1; further inland, Wirdum 2, Visquard 1, Eilsum 5, Dykhausen 2, and Syhlmönken 2.
In 1622 the separation of the Groningen Old Flemish under the influence of Uko Walles becomes stronger here. In the newly reclaimed land at Wirdum lived Abraham Nannings, the preacher of the Eilsum congregation, which met in the home of Rottger Rolef. He had at first been of a different mind, but was later rebaptized in the Dutch province of Groningen. He officiated at marriages, but for baptism an elder came from Leer, and after this elder's death, someone from Groningen. All the Mennonites registered in the Greetsiel area had probably been rebaptized in the previous decade. In official questionings the authorities sought information concerning the relations with other Mennonite groups and concerning any proselytizing in the recognized churches. Nannings replied by referring to their letter of protection.
In the following 125 years the trend to the city became effective among the Mennonites. In 1769 there were in Eilsum 3 baptized members, in Greetsiel 5, and in Wirdum 1; they united at that time with the larger Norden congregation. In the following years the preacher of Norden held three or four sermons annually at Krummhörn until there were no members left (about 1780). The Naamlijst does not mention Krummhörn (Kromhorn) in 1731 ff.
Cate, Steven Blaupot ten. Geschiedenis der Doopsgezinden in Groningen, Overijssel en Oost-Friesland. 2 v. Leeuwarden: W. Eekhoff en J. B. Wolters, 1842: I.
Doopsgezinde Bijdragen (1895): 74-100, especially 82, 85, 88.
Hege, Christian and Christian Neff. Mennonitisches Lexikon. Frankfurt & Weierhof: Hege; Karlsruhe; Schneider, 1913-1967: II, 577.
Hesta, Leonardus. "De laatste bladzijde van de geschiedenis der oud-vlaamsche gemeente te Norden."
Müller, J. P. Die Mennoniten in Ostfriesland vom 16. biz zum 18. Jahrhundert. Emden and Borkuni-Amsterdam, 1887.
Adapted by permission of Herald Press, Harrisonburg, Virginia, and Waterloo, Ontario, from Mennonite Encyclopedia, Vol. 3, p. 250. All rights reserved. For information on ordering the encyclopedia visit the Herald Press website.
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MLA style: Crous, Ernst. "Krummhörn (Niedersachsen, Germany)." Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. 1957. Web. 24 May 2013. http://www.gameo.org/encyclopedia/contents/krummhorn_niedersachsen_germany.
APA style: Crous, Ernst. (1957). Krummhörn (Niedersachsen, Germany). Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved 24 May 2013, from http://www.gameo.org/encyclopedia/contents/krummhorn_niedersachsen_germany.