1953 Article[[|]]In the latter part of 1750, about 30 Mennonite families in the canton of Basel, Switzerland, after a long period of persecution, during which they suffered both imprisonment and loss of property, decided to emigrate westward. They went first to England, and in the fall of 1751 set sail for America. The voyage across the Atlantic was disastrous; one of the ships with all their goods was lost, and they landed destitute. One company, including John and Jacob Engel and others whose names are uncertain, settled near the Susquehanna, in western Lancaster County, Pennsylvania in early 1752.
In 1770, as a result of the labors of some members of the Lutheran, Mennonite, and Baptist churches, who were grieved at what they considered the formalism which then characterized the churches, there was, in that region, a notable revival, which was attended by many conversions. It was conducted principally by Otterbein, Boehm, Bochran, and the Engels, representing the different bodies. Subsequently difference of views arose in regard to the form of baptism, some holding that the applicant should make choice of the method, while others claimed that trine immersion was the only proper form. The result was that they mutually agreed to work independently, in accordance with their various interpretations of the Scriptures.
The believers in trine immersion associated with the Engels, many of them former Mennonites, had no regular organization, but were in the habit of designating the various communities as brotherhoods. There was thus the Brotherhood down by the River, meaning in the southern part of Lancaster County; also the Brotherhood in the North, the Brotherhood in Dauphin, the Brotherhood in Lebanon, the Brotherhood in Bucks and Montgomery, etc. The outlying brotherhoods looked to the brotherhood in the southern part of Lancaster County as the home of the organization, and it was probably due to this fact that the general term "River Brethren" was given to the entire body. Another explanation has been given by some, namely, that they were in the habit of baptizing in the river. With the development of these brotherhoods, it seemed advisable to select someone to perform the duties of the ministerial office, and the choice fell upon Jacob Engel, who thus became their first minister.
A small faction of the Brethren in Christ broke off in 1838 in Ohio under the leadership of John Wenger, who were joined shortly thereafter by John Swank, formerly of the United Brethren Church. In 1860 Swank broke off with a small faction from this Wenger group, which in 1883 united with the Evangelical United Mennonites led by Daniel Brenneman, to become the Mennonite Brethren in Christ. Later, portions of the Wenger group joined the Mennonite Brethren in Christ, one congregation doing so as late as 1920. The small remnant of the Wenger group later adopted the name Pentecostal Brethren in Christ (in 1924 this group became part of The Pilgrim Holiness Church).
In course of time dissensions arose concerning what would now be called minor points, which ultimately caused divisions. In 1843 the body known as "Yorkers" or, as some call them, "Old Order" Brethren, withdrew, and in 1853 the body known as "Brinser," but later as "United Zion's Children," also withdrew, both in eastern Pennsylvania.
At first the organization of the River Brethren was simple, but as their numbers increased a more permanent form became necessary, and about 1820 an ecclesiastical organization was adopted. During the Civil War some of the members, although proclaiming the doctrine of nonresistance, were drafted for military service, and it became evident that the denomination must secure legal recognition as a religious organization holding that doctrine. Steps to secure such recognition were taken at a private council held in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, as early as 1862, at which time those who remained after the separation of the other two branches, and who constituted the great majority of the Brethren, decided to adopt the name "Brethren in Christ" instead of "River Brethren," which was done the following year. In 1904 the organization was incorporated according to the laws of the State of Pennsylvania as "a religious body for the worship of Almighty God," with headquarters at Harrisburg.
The Brethren in Christ did not accept any historical creed or confession, but generally regarded the authority of the Holy Scriptures and recognized the importance of the teachings of Christ and doctrines of the New Testament. They believed that the church was "built on faith in an almighty, triune, eternal, self-existent God—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit." They accepted the doctrines of the immortality of the soul; redemption through Jesus Christ as the Son of God, who makes atonement for the sins of the world; and regeneration through the influence of the Holy Spirit, developing into holy living. They held that trine immersion was the only proper form of baptism, practiced confession of sins to God and man, and observed the Lord's Supper and communion, accompanying it by the ceremony of feetwashing. The recognition of Christ, not only as Saviour, but as Lord and Master and King, involved in their view the acceptance of the tenets and principles of His government. Accordingly, they believed that, inasmuch as He is Prince of Peace, His kingdom is of peace, and as His subjects, they should abstain from the employment of carnal forces which involved the taking of human life. For this reason the doctrine of nonresistance, in a qualified sense, was a feature of their belief. They considered Freemasonry and all other secret societies to be anti-Christian; they believed in prayer veiling for women, and they advocated the wearing of modest apparel, with nonconformity to the fashions of the world.
The ecclesiastical organization of the denomination included the local church, a system of district councils, state councils, and a general conference. The officers of the church in the early 1950s were bishops, ministers, and deacons. The bishops presided at all council meetings, officiated at marriages and in the observance of the ordinances, and exercised all functions of the ministry. The ministers were specifically the teaching body, but also did parish visiting, and by request of the bishop, in his absence administered the ordinances. The denomination in a slow transition was changing from a self-supported ministry to support by contributions, and salary for full-time pastors. The deacons had charge of the business affairs of the churches, served at the communion table, look after the poor, and also did some visiting in the parish. The membership of the general conference, which met annually, included laymen as delegates as well as ministers.
The general activities of the church in education, publication, charitable and missionary interests in mid-20th century were directed by general church boards, responsible to the general conference. Eight boards functioned in their respective areas of endeavor—General, Executive, Benevolence, Foreign Mission, Home Mission, Christian Education, Publication, and Board for Schools and Colleges.
In 1951 the Brethren in Christ Church had in the United States and Canada 138 churches, with a membership of 6,807 residing in 13 different states and 2 provinces. Of these congregations, 54 were in Pennsylvania, 14 in Ontario, 10 in Ohio, 8 in Michigan, 7 in Kentucky, and 5 each in California and Kansas. The church contributed $613,223.05 during 1950 to all phases of the church program, an average of $90.08 per member. The Sunday-school enrollment stood at 14,760.
The church was aggressively missionary in interest and program in mid-20th century. Sixty-eight workers were active in the foreign mission fields of India and Rhodesia (later Zambia and Zimbabwe), South Africa. In southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) there were 72 out-schools and in northern Rhodesia (Zambia) there were 38. There were 3,372 baptized members on these foreign mission fields, with 3,694 additional persons enrolled in membership inquirers' classes. 11,893 students were enrolled in mission elementary, boarding and teacher-training schools.
The educational interests of the denomination were served by two colleges and two academies—Messiah College, Grantham, Pennsylvania, and Upland College, Upland, California, a high school in Ontario, and another in Oklahoma. In 1950 the number of students enrolled in these institutions was 512. Contributions to the support of these schools during 1950 were listed at $33,823.98.
For a number of years the Brethren in Christ have worked with the Mennonites in the area of peace witnessing. When the first conference for administrators of Mennonite colleges was held at Winona Lake, 7-8 August 1942, Messiah College was represented and participated in the discussion of immediate problems confronting the Mennonite colleges as a result of the war. Meeting regularly two or three times annually since that year, the organization came to be known as the Council of Mennonite and Affiliated Colleges, including Upland (formerly Beulah) College as well as Messiah College.
In 1940 the Brethren in Christ Church appointed a member on the Mennonite Central Committee and co-operated wholeheartedly in the program of Civilian Public Service and Relief. During the years 1940-1950 the Brethren in Christ Church contributed to the Mennonite Central Committee $142,183.22 in support of Civilian Public Service and $109,462.12 to War Sufferers' Relief and other phases of work supported by the Mennonite Central Committee. Of the more than 600 Mennonite Central Committee relief workers in the period beginning with World War II, 19 were members of the Brethren in Christ Church.
(Five paragraphs of this article were quoted from the report of Department of Commerce, Census of the Religious Bodies of 1916. More recent research indicated the article is not correct in all historical details. See the article below. Statistical information in the article was supplied from the records of the General Conference.) -- C. Nelson Hostetter
1990 UpdateThe Brethren in Christ movement began around 1780 in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. The founders, largely of Anabaptist background (probably mainly Mennonite), were deeply influenced by the pietistic revival movements of the period which emphasized a crisis conversion experience, with an attendant belief in a personal, "heartfelt" relationship to God. Some of the founders received a conversion experience in the revivals, while others came to believe in what the revivals emphasized. They began to meet in their homes to discuss their experiences and to study the Bible for new insights it might give them.
Their discussion led eventually to their formal organization as a separate group. As Anabaptists they were firm in their views of discipleship and of the church as the visible, called-out body of believers. But they were also convinced of the need for the crisis conversion experience. Thus they did not feel comfortable with the Anabaptist groups from which they came or with various other pietistic groups in the area. As a result, they organized themselves into a new group where the principles of baptism and pietism were combined.
The catalyst for their decision to organize appears to have been the issue of the correct mode of baptism. The founders became convinced from their reading of the Bible that baptism should be by trine immersion. Their Mennonite ministers, however, would not baptize in this mode. The German Baptists Brethren (later known as Church of the Brethren), from whom some of the founders probably came, did practice trine immersion, but would baptize the group in the manner requested only if they became German Baptists Brethren. In their impasse, the group, led by Jacob Engel, decided to baptize each other. The site of their baptism was near Marietta in the Convoy Creek that ran past the Engel farm, located near the Susquehanna River. This action served to reinforce the stance of the founders as a separate group.
The new body called itself the Brethren. They soon became known, however, as River Brethren. Probably the name was given to them by others to distinguish them from other Brethren groups in the area. At the time of the Civil War, when it became necessary to register with the U.S. federal government as a nonresistant group, they named themselves Brethren in Christ. In Canada, members were first called Tunkers (from the German verb tunken, meaning to dip); according to tradition it was a name given to them by their neighbors who observed them immersing converts in baptism. This name was officially retained until 1933, although the term Brethren in Christ had already been used for some years in conjunction with Tunker.
Shortly after their organization, members began to spread out from their base in Lancaster County. A few went to Canada (primarily Ontario) as early as 1788, and during the course of the 19th century they also settled in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Iowa, Kansas, Oklahoma, and California. For the most part, these areas remained the main centers of the Brethren in Christ Church in North America in the 1980s.
Two schisms occurred in the mid-19th century. A small progressive group in Pennsylvania was expelled for constructing a church building rather than continuing to worship in homes and barns. The new group became known as the United Zion's Children (later United Zion Church). At about the same time, a more conservative group broke from the main body, in part because the latter did not appear aggressive enough in disciplining those who had built a meetinghouse. This more conservative group called themselves the Old Order River Brethren (sometimes referred to as Yorkers, but now preferably Old Order Brethren).
During their first century the Brethren in Christ worked out a synthesis of their Anabaptist-pietistic beliefs. Their emphasis on a two-kingdom theology (nonconformity) made them one with other Anabaptist groups in such matters as nonresistance and nonparticipation in politics. They wore simple, or plain, clothing, and they practiced brotherhood in such matters as church discipline and caring for one another. Their love feasts, adopted from the Church of the Brethren, were an expression of their brotherhood concerns. Their pietism was expressed, among other ways, in testimony meetings (or experience meetings), and in the continued insistence on the crisis conversion experience.
Beginning in the latter part of the 19th century, the Brethren in Christ came into contact with new movements and ideas, and during a 30-year period grafted them onto their traditional life and thought. This period may be seen as the first transitional period. It was similar in some ways to the awakening or renaissance occurring among Mennonites at the same time.
During this transitional period the Brethren in Christ adopted a more aggressive approach to evangelism. They established missions in Canada, the United States, and in Africa, in what eventually became Zimbabwe and Zambia. They also adopted some of the revivalist methods then current. Revival meetings at least once a year became an important part of each congregation's yearly activities. Sunday schools, with their emphasis on the salvation and instruction of youth and children, also became an aggressive means of evangelism.
In the same period, the Brethren in Christ established a number of institutions. In 1887 they began a church paper, the Evangelical Visitor, which became a useful medium for evangelism and the spread of new ideas. They began orphanages in Oklahoma, Illinois, and Pennsylvania, and a home for the elderly in Pennsylvania. Messiah Bible School and Missionary Training Home (later Messiah College) was chartered in Pennsylvania in 1909; Beulah (later Upland) College in California in 1920; and Ontario Bible School (later Niagara Christian College) in 1931.
A formal merger of the church in Canada with the church in the United States occurred in 1879. The governing body (General Conference) created by this merger, met annually until 1972, when it began to meet biennially. These institutions, together with the structures needed to conduct missions, gave the Brethren in Christ a more organized structure, in contrast to an earlier informal approach to church life.
At the same time, Wesleyan holiness theology, with its emphasis on the sanctified life, gradually worked its way into the church to become an official doctrine in 1910. Although in some ways pietistic in nature, the doctrine was essentially a new teaching. The emphasis was now less on the work of the Holy Spirit as leading the Christian to a more perfect spiritual state and more on a second work of grace in which the Holy Spirit filled the heart, cleansed it from its carnal nature, and enabled the Christian to live the life of obedience more successfully. By the 1930s holiness camps began to appear in Roxbury, Pennsylvania (1936), followed by others in Ohio, Ontario, Kansas, California, and Florida.
Beginning in the early 1950s, a second period of transition brought more significant changes to the Brethren in Christ. In part, this was owing to the increasing urbanization and professionalism of members of the church, which brought them into contact with new people and ideas; in part, it grew out of a growing concern to be more effective in the changing conditions in which the church was finding itself. Standards for plain dress were relaxed and eventually disappeared, although an emphasis on modesty remained. Musical instruments, once forbidden in both homes and churches, became widely used, even for worship services. A strong youth program was developed which included youth camps, Bible quizzing competitions, and athletic events. Absolute restrictions against membership for divorced and remarried people were officially relaxed by the General Conference and in a growing number of congregations.
At the same time, the Brethren in Christ became more ecumenical. In 1949 they became official members of the National Association of Evangelicals, and in 1950 joined the National Holiness Association (later Christian Holiness Association). Brethren in Christ have held leadership positions in both organizations. Beginning in World War II, the Brethren in Christ Church has been a member of Mennonite Central Committee, and has cooperated closely with Mennonites in peace witness and relief service.
A structural reorganization accompanied this second transitional period. Many small districts (some with only one congregation), each with its own bishop, were replaced with six regional conferences with a bishop for each conference. Greater freedom was given to local congregations to interpret the decisions of the General Conference and its doctrinal statements. A further structural reorganization in the early 1980s (known as Renewal 2000) consolidated many boards, committees, and commissions into several boards. It also instituted Cooperative Ministries, a brotherhood concept of financing the services of the church in which money given in congregational offerings goes in proportional amounts to congregational, regional, and General Conference ministries.
The strong missions orientation of the Brethren in Christ Church was illustrated by the distribution of the Cooperative Ministries budget in 1986; the Board for World Missions received nearly 50 percent of the budget. Since 1945 the mission areas of the church have been expanded beyond Africa and India to include Japan, Cuba, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Colombia, England, and Malawi. In recent years representatives from each area have come together periodically for a conference; in 1984, for example, the conference was held in Hagenau, France. In its mission program, the church has endeavored to provide holistic ministry. Along with preaching and building churches, it has established orphanages and homes for children, medical clinics, and hospitals.
Other ministries of the Brethren in Christ Church in North America have spoken to similar concerns. Messiah Village in Pennsylvania and Upland Manor in California were established as retirement homes. Timber Bay Children's Home in Saskatchewan has cared for North American Indian children during the school year. Paxton Street Home in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, provides food and housing for disadvantaged people. Camping programs at Kenbrook and the Christian Retreat Center (both in Pennsylvania), Camp Kahquah in Ontario, Camp Lakeview in Michigan, and Mile High Pines in California focus on children, youth, and families. -- E. Morris Sider
2013 UpdateThe membership of the Canadian Conference of the Brethren in Christ Church in 1996 was approximately 3,219, and in 2003 it was 3,287.
In 2013 the Brethren in Christ Church in the United States had 254 congregations:
|Abilene Brethren in Christ||Abilene, KS|
|Acts Fellowship Network||Chambersburg, PA|
|Agua Viva Brethren in Christ||Riverside, CA|
|Air Hill Brethren in Christ||Chambersburg, PA|
|Amherst Community Brethren in Christ||Massillon, OH|
|Antrim Brethren in Christ||Chambersburg, PA|
|Ashland Brethren in Christ||Ashland, OH|
|Bethany Brethren in Christ||Thomas, OK|
|Bethel (Merrill) Brethren in Christ Church||Merrill, MI|
|Bethel Brethren in Christ Church of Hillsville||Hillsville, VA|
|Bethel Brethren in Christ (Miramar)||Miramar, FL|
|Bethel Community Brethren in Christ||Cassopolis, MI|
|Beulah Chapel Brethren in Christ of Fairplay||Columbia, KY|
|Big Valley Brethren in Christ||Belleville, PA|
|Blairs Mills Brethren in Christ||Blairs Mills, PA|
|Blandburg Brethren in Christ Church||Blandburg, PA|
|Blessed Hope Brethren in Christ||Franksville, WI|
|Bloomington Chapel Brethren in Christ||Columbia, KY|
|Blue Mountain Memorial Brethren in Christ||Newburg, PA|
|The Bridge||Hummelstown, PA|
|The Bridge @ Beans||Sterling, IL|
|Bright Hope Fellowship Brethren in Christ||Middletown, PA|
|Buenas Nuevas||Opa Locka, FL|
|Bunker Hill Brethren in Christ||Bunker Hill, WV|
|Buscadores de Fuego Brethren in Christ||Miramar, FL|
|Calvary Bible Brethren in Christ||Accomac, VA|
|Canoe Creek Brethren in Christ||Hollidaysburg, PA|
|Carland-Zion Brethren in Christ||Elsie, MI|
|Carlisle Brethren in Christ||Carlisle, PA|
|Casa de Benedicion Brethren in Christ||West Palm Beach, FL|
|Casa del Dios Vivente Brethren in Christ||Pompano Beach, FL|
|Cedar Grove Brethren in Christ||Mifflintown, PA|
|Cedar Heights Brethren in Christ||Mill Hall, PA|
|Center Grove Brethren in Christ||Three Springs, PA|
|Center Hill Brethren in Christ||Smithville, TN|
|Centro Internacional Cristiano||Miami, FL|
|Chambersburg Brethren in Christ||Chambersburg, PA|
|Christian Union Brethren in Christ||Garrett, IN|
|Church of Second Chances||Ontario, CA|
|Circle of Hope - Broad and Dauphin||Philadelphia, PA|
|Circle of Hope - Broad and Washington||Philadelphia, PA|
|Circle of Hope - Frankford and Norris||Philadelphia, PA|
|Circle of Hope - Marlton and Crescent||Pennsauken, NJ|
|City of Refuge Brethren in Christ||Lancaster, PA|
|Clear Creek Brethren in Christ||Everett, PA|
|Colyer Brethren in Christ||Centre Hall, PA|
|Community Bible Chapel||Sarasota, FL|
|Community of Faith Brethren in Christ||Roanoke, VA|
|Conoy Brethren in Christ||Elizabethtown, PA|
|Crest Community Church||Riverside, CA|
|Cristo es la Respuesta Brethren in Christ||Homestead, FL|
|Cristo Fiel y Verdadero Brethren in Christ||Miami, FL|
|Cristo La Roca of Algoa||Santa Fe, TX|
|Cristo Rey Brethren in Christ||Miami, FL|
|Cristo Vive Brethren in Christ||Hialeah, FL|
|Cross Roads Brethren in Christ of Mount Joy||Mount Joy, PA|
|The Crossings||Lititz, PA|
|Crossroads Brethren in Christ Church of Hagerstown||State Line, PA|
|CrossRoads Church of Salina||Salina, KS|
|Crossroads Community Brethren in Christ||Hatfield, PA|
|Cumberland Valley Brethren in Christ||Dillsburg, PA|
|Daybreak Community||Royersford, PA|
|Dayton Brethren in Christ||Dayton, OH|
|Dayton Mission Brethren in Christ||Dayton, OH|
|DeRossett Brethren in Christ||Sparta, TN|
|Desert Light Christian Church||Albuquerque, NM|
|The Difference Brethren in Christ||Massillon, OH|
|Dillsburg Brethren in Christ||Dillsburg, PA|
|Discipulos de Cristo||Miami, FL|
|Discover Joy||Manheim, PA|
|Ebenezer Brethren in Christ||Hialeah, FL|
|El Aposento de la Gracia Brethren in Christ||Hollywood, FL|
|El Monte Calvario Brethren in Christ||Salem, OR|
|Elizabethtown Brethren in Christ||Elizabethtown, PA|
|Engage Brethren in Christ||Carlisle, PA|
|Eshcol Brethren in Christ||Ickesburg, PA|
|Esmirna Brethren in Christ||Miami, FL|
|Etiwanda Brethren in Christ||Rancho Cucamonga, CA|
|Fairland Brethren in Christ||Cleona, PA|
|Fairview Avenue Brethren in Christ||Waynesboro, PA|
|Fairview Brethren in Christ||Englewood, OH|
|Fairview Brethren in Christ||New Cumberland, PA|
|Faith Brethren in Christ||Essex, MD|
|Fellowship Chapel||Bronx, NY|
|Ferguson Valley Brethren in Christ||McVeytown, PA|
|First Nations Gathering||Bloomfield, NM|
|Five Forks Brethren in Christ||Waynesboro, PA|
|Free Grace Brethren in Christ||Millersburg, PA|
|Fuente de Salvacion Brethren in Christ||Spring Hill, FL|
|Gateway Community||Chino, CA|
|Gethsemane Fellowship Brethren in Christ||New Carlisle, OH|
|Getsemany Brethren in Christ||Los Angeles, CA|
|Gospel Life Brethren in Christ||Des Plaines, IL|
|Grace Community Brethren in Christ||Lawrenceville, GA|
|Grace Community Brethren in Christ of Vineland||Vineland, NJ|
|Grantham Brethren in Christ||Grantham, PA|
|Granville Brethren in Christ||Lewistown, PA|
|Green Grove Brethren in Christ||Spring Mills, PA|
|Green Spring Brethren in Christ||Newville, PA|
|Hanover Brethren in Christ||Hanover, PA|
|The Harbour Church||Orlando, FL|
|Harrisburg Brethren in Christ||Harrisburg, PA|
|Harvest Community Brethren in Christ||Mount Joy, PA|
|Hempfield Brethren in Christ||Lancaster, PA|
|Hermanos en Cristo Brethren in Christ||Ft. Lauderdale, FL|
|Hialeah East Brethren in Christ||Hialeah, FL|
|Highland Brethren in Christ||West Milton, OH|
|Highland Park Community Brethren in Christ||Dublin, VA|
|Hollowell Brethren in Christ||Waynesboro, PA|
|Holy City Church||Hollywood, FL|
|Hunlock Creek Brethren in Christ||Hunlock Creek, PA|
|Iglesia Cristiana Bethel - Hermanos en Cristo||Miami, FL|
|Iglesia Cristiana Ebenezer||Tampa, FL|
|Iglesia Hispana Vida y Esperanza||Mifflintown, PA|
|Iglesia Vida Brethren in Christ||Doral, FL|
|Iron Springs Brethren in Christ||Fairfield, PA|
|Jehovah Yireh Brethren in Christ||Miami, FL|
|Jemison Valley Brethren in Christ||Westfield, PA|
|Jesucristo La Solucion||Miami, FL|
|Jesucristo Rey de Reyes Brethren in Christ||Miami, FL|
|Jubileo Brethren in Christ||Miami, FL|
|Kimbeto Valley Brethren in Christ||Nageezi, NM|
|King of Glory||Streetsboro, OH|
|Knifley Chapel Brethren in Christ||Knifley, KY|
|Koinos Community||Reading, PA|
|La Hermosa Brethren in Christ||Miami, FL|
|La Paz del Senor||Winston Salem, NC|
|La Puerta de Salvacion Brethren in Christ||Miami, FL|
|La Roca Brethren in Christ (Hialeah)||Medley, FL|
|La Roca Brethren in Christ (Roanoke)||Roanoke, VA|
|La Roca Firme Brethren in Christ||Hialeah, FL|
|La Vida Verdadera||West Palm Beach, FL|
|Lakeview Community Brethren in Christ||Goodrich, MI|
|Lancaster Brethren in Christ||Lancaster, PA|
|Leonard Community Brethren in Christ||Leonard, MI|
|LifeHouse Church||Abilene, KS|
|LifePath Church||Newark, DE|
|LifePoint Church||Harrisburg, PA|
|Light of Christ Fellowship||Johnston, IA|
|Luz, Alegria y Esperanza Brethren in Christ||York Springs, PA|
|Madison Street Church||Riverside, CA|
|Manheim Brethren in Christ||Manheim, PA|
|Manor Church||Lancaster, PA|
|Maranatha Brethren in Christ||Hialeah, FL|
|Marsh Creek Brethren in Christ of Exton||Exton, PA|
|Marsh Creek Brethren in Christ of Howard||Howard, PA|
|Martinsburg Brethren in Christ||Martinsburg, PA|
|Mechanicsburg Brethren in Christ||Mechanicsburg, PA|
|Messiah Village Brethren in Christ||Mechanicsburg, PA|
|Millerfield Brethren in Christ||Columbia, KY|
|Millersville Brethren in Christ||Lancaster, PA|
|Ministerio Internacional Monte Sion||Miami, FL|
|Ministerios El Shaddai - Bloomington||Rialto, CA|
|Ministerios El Shaddai - Indio||Indio, CA|
|Ministerios El Shaddai - Riverside||Riverside, CA|
|Monte Calvario Brethren in Christ||Miami, FL|
|Monte de Carmelo||Philadlephia, PA|
|Monte Sion Brethren in Christ||West Miami, FL|
|Montgomery Brethren in Christ||Mercersburg, PA|
|Montoursville Brethren in Christ||Montoursville, PA|
|Mooretown Brethren in Christ||Sandusky, MI|
|Morning Hour Chapel Brethren in Christ||East Berlin, PA|
|Morrison Brethren in Christ||Morrison, IL|
|Mount Pleasant Brethren in Christ||Mount Joy, PA|
|Mountain Chapel Brethren in Christ||Breezewood, PA|
|Mountain Ridge Regional Church||Dillsburg, PA|
|Mowersville Brethren in Christ||Newburg, PA|
|Mt. Rock Brethren in Christ||Shippensburg, PA|
|Mt. Tabor Brethren in Christ||Mercersburg, PA|
|Mt. Zion Brethren in Christ||Milltown, IN|
|Nappanee Brethren in Christ||Nappanee, IN|
|NewCreation Brethren in Christ||Dillsburg, PA|
|New Beginnings Brethren in Christ||Ephrata, PA|
|New Community Brethren in Christ||Chino, CA|
|New Guilford Brethren in Christ||Chambersburg, PA|
|New Harvest Community Brethren in Christ||Millerstown, PA|
|New Hope Church||Harrisburg, PA|
|New Joy Brethren in Christ Church||Ephrata, PA|
|New Life Church of Hershey||Hummelstown, PA|
|New Life Community||Carlisle, PA|
|New Trail Fellowship||Abilene, KS|
|New Vision Brethren in Christ||Pewaukee, WI|
|Nueva Jerusalem (West Palm Beach)||West Palm Beach, FL|
|Nueva Jerusalem (Hialeah)||Hialeah, FL|
|Nueva Jerusalem (Lake City)||Lake City, FL|
|Nueva Jerusalem (Vero Beach)||Vero Beach, FL|
|Nuevo Comienzo en Cristo||Pembrooke Pines, FL|
|Oasis Brethren in Christ||Miami, FL|
|Palabra de Vida||La Puente, CA|
|Palabra Eterna Brethren in Christ||Doral, FL|
|Palmyra Brethren in Christ||Palmyra, PA|
|Paramount Brethren in Christ||Hagerstown, MD|
|Pathway Community Brethren in Christ of York||York, PA|
|Peace Light Brethren in Christ||McKnightstown, PA|
|Pequea Brethren in Christ||Lancaster, PA|
|Pleasant Hill Brethren in Christ||Pleasant Hill, OH|
|Pleasant Valley Brethren in Christ||Elliottsburg, PA|
|Pleasant View Brethren in Christ||Red Lion, PA|
|Poder de Dios Brethren in Christ||Hialeah, FL|
|Pomeroy Chapel Brethren in Christ||Smithville, TN|
|Principe de Paz Brethren in Christ||Hialeah, FL|
|Red Star Brethren in Christ||Leedey, OK|
|Redimidos por Jesus Brethren in Christ||Indiantown, FL|
|Redland Valley Brethren in Christ||York Haven, PA|
|Redwood Country Brethren in Christ||Grants Pass, OR|
|Refton Brethren in Christ||Refton, PA|
|Refugio de Amor Brethren in Christ||Miami, FL|
|Refugio Eterno Brethren in Christ||Lake Worth, FL|
|Revolution Church||Salina, KS|
|Ridge View Brethren in Christ||Roanoke, VA|
|River of Faith Church||Alta Loma, CA|
|Rock Island Brethren in Christ||Herington, KS|
|Rolling Acres Brethren in Christ||McMinnville, TN|
|Saville Brethren in Christ||Ickesburg, PA|
|Saxton Brethren in Christ||Saxton, PA|
|Senda de Luz Brethren in Christ||Ocala, FL|
|Shermans Valley Brethren in Christ||Hopewell, PA|
|Silverdale Brethren in Christ||Silverdale, PA|
|Siquen Brethren in Christ||Orlando, FL|
|Solid Ground Brethren in Christ||Rancho Cucamonga, CA|
|Souderton Brethren in Christ||Souderton, PA|
|South Mountain Chapel||Shippensburg, PA|
|Speedwell Heights Brethren in Christ||Lititz, PA|
|Spring of Hope Brethren in Christ||Altoona, PA|
|Springhope Brethren in Christ||Schellsburg, PA|
|Stowe Brethren in Christ||Pottstown, PA|
|Summit View Brethren in Christ||New Holland, PA|
|Tabernaculo de Fuego Brethren in Christ||Hialeah, FL|
|The Table Community Church||Lancaster, PA|
|Torre Fuerte||Miami, FL|
|Tremont Brethren in Christ||Tremont, PA|
|Union Grove Brethren in Christ||Nappanee, IN|
|Upland Brethren in Christ||Upland, CA|
|The Upper Room (Belleville)||Belleville, PA|
|The Upper Room (Harleysville)||Harleysville, PA|
|Valley Chapel Brethren in Christ||East Canton, OH|
|Valley Christian Church||Moreno Valley, CA|
|Van Lear Brethren in Christ||Williamsport, MD|
|Vida Abundante (Miami Lakes)||Hialeah, FL|
|Vida Abundante (Hollywood)||Hollywood, FL|
|Vida Nueva||Cary, NC|
|The Vine||Smithsburg, MD|
|Voz en el Desierto||Miami, FL|
|Walkersville Community Church||Walkersville, MD|
|Waukena Community Brethren in Christ||Waukena, CA|
|The Well Brethren in Christ||Waynesboro, PA|
|Wesley Brethren in Christ||Mount Holly Springs, PA|
|West Shore Brethren in Christ||Mechanicsburg, PA|
|West Side Brethren in Christ||Chambersburg, PA|
|Western Hills Brethren in Christ||Cincinnati, OH|
|Westside Christian Community||Springfield, OH|
|Woodbury Brethren in Christ||Woodbury, PA|
|Zion Brethren in Christ||Abilene, KS|
Alderfer, Owen H. Called to Obedience. Nappanee, IN, 1975.
Bert, Norman A. Adventure in Discipleship. Nappanee, IN, 1968.
Brief History of United Zion's Children Church. 1917.
Climenhaga, Asa W. History of the Brethren in Christ Church. Nappanee, IN, 1942.
Huffman, J. A. History of the Mennonite Brethren in Christ Church. New Carlisle, Ohio, 1920: 81-95.
Minutes of the 113th General Conference, Brethren in Christ Church. Nappanee, IN: Evangel Press, 1994.
Minutes of the 106th Annual Conference. Canadian Conference of the Brethren in Christ Church, 1997.
Origin and History of the Tunker Church in Canada. Ridgeway, ON, 1918.
Sider, E. Morris. Nine Portraits. Nappanee, IN, 1978.
Sider, E. Morris. The Brethren in Christ in Canada: Two Hundred Years of Tradition and Change. Nappanee, IN, 1988.
Wittlinger, Carlton O. Quest for Piety and Obedience: The Story of the Brethren in Christ. Nappanee, IN: Evangel Press, 1978.
Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches 2012, edited by Eileen W. Lindner. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 2012: 362, 369.
WebsitesBrethren in Christ Church (U.S.A.)
|Author(s)||C. Nelson Hostetter|
|E. Morris Sider|
|Date Published||April 2013|
Cite This Article
Hostetter, C. Nelson and E. Morris Sider. "Brethren in Christ Church." Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. April 2013. Web. 23 Sep 2014. http://gameo.org/index.php?title=Brethren_in_Christ_Church&oldid=113241.
Hostetter, C. Nelson and E. Morris Sider. (April 2013). Brethren in Christ Church. Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved 23 September 2014, from http://gameo.org/index.php?title=Brethren_in_Christ_Church&oldid=113241.
Herald Press website.
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