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The first Mennonites in North America were Dutch "Menists" reported to be in Manhattan (now New York City) and Gravesend, Long Island, near New York City, as early as 1644. Nothing is known of them except these reports, and no permanent settlement was made. [[Plockhoy, Pieter Cornelisz (1620?-1700?)|Pieter Cornelisz Plockhoy]]'s ill-starred colony on the Delaware, south of Chester, [[Pennsylvania (USA)|Pennsylvania]] (1663-1665), was scarcely Mennonite. Permanent Mennonite settlement began in 1683 (really not until 1685) at [[Germantown Mennonite Settlement (Pennsylvania, USA)|Germantown]], near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with a small group from the Lower Rhine and Hamburg (ca. 100 families 1683-1705). The major immigration began in 1707-1710 from the [[Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany)|Palatinate]] and Switzerland into the territory north and west of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, continuing until about 1756, when it was relatively stopped by the French and Indian War (1756-1763), and was not resumed in force until after the close of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. By that time Eastern Pennsylvania was filled, and the new groups located west of the Alleghenies and on west to central [[Illinois (USA)|Illinois]] or to [[Ontario (Canada)|Ontario]]. The major element in the migration of 1815-1860 was of Amish from [[Alsace (France)|Alsace]], [[Bayern Federal State (Germany)|Bavaria]], and Hesse, although also a considerable body of Swiss came in this period to [[Ohio (State)|Ohio]] and [[Indiana (USA)|Indiana]]. While the German and Swiss immigration slowed to a trickle after this, a very large migration from [[Russia|Russia]] brought another ethnic group to North America in 1874-1880, followed by a later, still larger movement from Russia in 1922-1925, a small one 1930-1939, and a larger one again in 1947-1950. A minor movement of this ethnic element came from [[South America|South America]] (chiefly [[Paraguay|Paraguay]]) to North America in 1950-1957. (For a fuller account, see [[Migrations|Migrations]].)
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The first Mennonites in North America were Dutch "Menists" reported to be in Manhattan (now New York City) and Gravesend, Long Island, near New York City, as early as 1644. Nothing is known of them except these reports, and no permanent settlement was made. [[Plockhoy, Pieter Cornelisz (1620?-1700?)|Pieter Cornelisz Plockhoy]]'s ill-starred colony on the Delaware, south of Chester, [[Pennsylvania (USA)|Pennsylvania]] (1663-1665), was scarcely Mennonite. Permanent Mennonite settlement began in 1683 (really not until 1685) at [[Germantown Mennonite Settlement (Pennsylvania, USA)|Germantown]], near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with a small group from the Lower Rhine and Hamburg (ca. 100 families 1683-1705). The major immigration began in 1707-1710 from the [[Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany)|Palatinate]] and Switzerland into the territory north and west of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, continuing until about 1756, when it was relatively stopped by the French and Indian War (1756-1763), and was not resumed in force until after the close of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. By that time Eastern Pennsylvania was filled, and the new groups located west of the Alleghenies and on west to central [[Illinois (USA)|Illinois]] or to [[Ontario (Canada)|Ontario]]. The major element in the migration of 1815-1860 was of Amish from [[Alsace (France)|Alsace]], [[Bayern Federal State (Germany)|Bavaria]], and Hesse, although also a considerable body of Swiss came in this period to [[Ohio (State)|Ohio]] and [[Indiana (USA)|Indiana]]. While the German and Swiss immigration slowed to a trickle after this, a very large migration from [[Russia|Russia]] brought another ethnic group to North America in 1874-1880, followed by a later, still larger movement from Russia in 1922-1925, a small one 1930-1939, and a larger one again in 1947-1950. A minor movement of this ethnic element came from [[South America|South America ]] (chiefly [[Paraguay|Paraguay]]) to North America in 1950-1957. (For a fuller account, see [[Migrations|Migrations]].)
  
Until 1824 all Mennonite immigrants from Europe to America settled only in the [[United States of America|United States]]. Internal migration from Eastern Pennsylvania to [[Ontario (Canada)|Ontario]] in 1785-1840 established a substantial Mennonite base there. This furnished the attraction for all later substantial Mennonite movements to [[Canada|Canada]]. First were the [[Amish|Amish]] from Alsace-Lorraine and [[Bayern Federal State (Germany)|Bavaria]] in 1824-1850, located adjacent to the Pennsylvania Mennonites west of Kitchener. The very large migration from Russia to [[Manitoba (Canada)|Manitoba]] in 1874-1880 was made possible largely by the leadership of [[Shantz, Jacob Yost (1822-1909)|Jacob Y. Shantz]], a Mennonite of Kitchener, and the financial aid of the Ontario Mennonites. The large later movements from Russia to Canada (almost all the Russian immigrants of 1922-1925 and later came to Canada) were made possible largely by the aid of Russian Mennonites already in Manitoba and [[Saskatchewan (Canada)|Saskatchewan]]. The freer immigration policy of the Canadian government, in contrast to the restrictive policy of the United States, together with the greater availability of land for settlement in Canada, of course played a major role in the diversion of the 20th-century immigration to Canada. Since 1880 almost no Mennonites have immigrated to the United States, whereas the majority of the Canadian Mennonites are descendants of immigrants who arrived after 1920. This fact, coupled with the conservatism of the Manitoba Mennonites in general resulted in longer retention of the German language among the Canadian Mennonites (with the exception of Ontario), in contrast to the United States where the use of German was effectively ended by [[World War (1914-1918)|World War I]].
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Until 1824 all Mennonite immigrants from Europe to America settled only in the [[United States of America|United States]]. Internal migration from Eastern Pennsylvania to [[Ontario (Canada)|Ontario]] in 1785-1840 established a substantial Mennonite base there. This furnished the attraction for all later substantial Mennonite movements to [[Canada|Canada]]. First were the [[Amish Mennonites|Amish]] from Alsace-Lorraine and [[Bayern Federal State (Germany)|Bavaria]] in 1824-1850, located adjacent to the Pennsylvania Mennonites west of Kitchener. The very large migration from Russia to [[Manitoba (Canada)|Manitoba]] in 1874-1880 was made possible largely by the leadership of [[Shantz, Jacob Yost (1822-1909)|Jacob Y. Shantz]], a Mennonite of Kitchener, and the financial aid of the Ontario Mennonites. The large later movements from Russia to Canada (almost all the Russian immigrants of 1922-1925 and later came to Canada) were made possible largely by the aid of Russian Mennonites already in Manitoba and [[Saskatchewan (Canada)|Saskatchewan]]. The freer immigration policy of the Canadian government, in contrast to the restrictive policy of the United States, together with the greater availability of land for settlement in Canada, of course played a major role in the diversion of the 20th-century immigration to Canada. Since 1880 almost no Mennonites have immigrated to the United States, whereas the majority of the Canadian Mennonites are descendants of immigrants who arrived after 1920. This fact, coupled with the conservatism of the Manitoba Mennonites in general resulted in longer retention of the German language among the Canadian Mennonites (with the exception of Ontario), in contrast to the United States where the use of German was effectively ended by [[World War (1914-1918)|World War I]].
  
 
The third country of North America to have Mennonite settlements, [[Mexico|Mexico]], received them first in 1922 from [[Manitoba (Canada)|Manitoba]]. Except for a very few who came from [[Russia|Russia]] in 1922-1925, all Mennonites in Mexico came from Manitoba and Saskatchewan. All of them are of Russian origin, and all have maintained the German language, including the [[Kleine Gemeinde|Kleine Gemeinde]] group, which came from Manitoba in 1947-1949. The only substantial Mennonite emigration from North America has been that of the [[Old Colony Mennonites|Old Colony Mennonites]] from Manitoba and Saskatchewan in 1926-30 (later groups 1945-1948) who went to [[Paraguay|Paraguay]].
 
The third country of North America to have Mennonite settlements, [[Mexico|Mexico]], received them first in 1922 from [[Manitoba (Canada)|Manitoba]]. Except for a very few who came from [[Russia|Russia]] in 1922-1925, all Mennonites in Mexico came from Manitoba and Saskatchewan. All of them are of Russian origin, and all have maintained the German language, including the [[Kleine Gemeinde|Kleine Gemeinde]] group, which came from Manitoba in 1947-1949. The only substantial Mennonite emigration from North America has been that of the [[Old Colony Mennonites|Old Colony Mennonites]] from Manitoba and Saskatchewan in 1926-30 (later groups 1945-1948) who went to [[Paraguay|Paraguay]].
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2006</strong></div> </th> <th> <div align="center"><strong>Total
 
2006</strong></div> </th> <th> <div align="center"><strong>Total
  
2006</strong></div> </th> </tr> <tr> <td> <div align="left">[[Mennonite Church (MC)|Mennonite Church]]*</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">64,928</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">6,586</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">71,514</div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div align="right">110,696</div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div align="right">34,000</div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div align="right">144,696</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <div align="left">[[General Conference Mennonite Church (GCM)|General Conference Mennonite Church]]*</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">35,764</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">14,005</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">49,769</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <div align="left">[[Mennonite Brethren Church|Mennonite Brethren Church]]</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">11,095</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">12,967</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">24,062</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">33,498</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">35,770</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">69,268</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <div align="left">[[Old Order Amish|Old Order Amish]]</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">16,794</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">260</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">17,054</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">90,000</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,800</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">91,800</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <div align="left">[[Old Order Mennonites|Old Order Mennonite]]</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">3,887</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,915</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">5,802</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">20,300</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">3,000</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">23,300</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <div align="left">[[Church of God in Christ, Mennonite (CGC)|Church of God in Christ, Mennonite]]</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">4,161</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,439</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">5,600</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">13,560</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">4,540</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">18,100</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Conservative Mennonite Conference|Conservative Mennonite Conference]]</td> <td> <div align="right">5,585</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">5,585</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">11,199</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">11,199</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Mennonite Brethren in Christ Church of Pennsylvania|Mennonite Brethren in Christ (PA)]] (Bible Fellowship Church)</td> <td> <div align="right">4,635</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">4,635</div> </td> <td> <div align="right"> </div> </td> <td> <div align="right"> </div> </td> <td> <div align="right"> </div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Sommerfeld Mennonites|Sommerfelder]]</td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">3,785</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">3,785</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">4,590</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">4,590</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Beachy Amish Mennonite Fellowship|Beachy Amish]]</td> <td> <div align="right">2,677</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2,677</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">7,976</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">258</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">8,234</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Evangelical Mennonite Brethren ([[Fellowship of Evangelical Bible Churches|Fellowship of Evangelical Bible Churches]])</td> <td> <div align="right">1,564</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">936</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2,500</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2,031</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,748</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">3,779</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Evangelical Mennonite ([[Fellowship of Evangelical Churches|Fellowship of Evangelical Churches]])</td> <td> <div align="right">2,210</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2,210</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">5,981</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">5,981</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Old Colony Mennonites|Old Colony Mennonites]] (All groups)</td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2,155</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2,155</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">7,981</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">7,981</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Rudnerweide ([[Evangelical Mennonite Mission Conference (EMMC)|Evangelical Mennonite Mission Conference]])</td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,824</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,824</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">466</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">4,294</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">4,760</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Krimmer Mennonite Brethren|Krimmer Mennonite Brethren**]]</td> <td> <div align="right">1,527</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">176</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,703</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Chortitzer Mennonite Conference|Chortitzer Mennonite Conference]]</td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,408</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,408</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,650</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,650</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Evangelical Mennonite Conference (Kleine Gemeinde)|Evangelical Mennonite Conference]](Kleinegemeinde)</td> <td> <div align="right">25</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,000</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,025</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">7,270</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">7,270</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Reformed Mennonite Church|Reformed Mennonite Church]]</td> <td> <div align="right">662</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">218</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">880</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">171</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">131</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">302</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Stauffer Mennonite Church|Stauffer Mennonite Church]]</td> <td> <div align="right">357</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">357</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Weaver Mennonite Church</td> <td> <div align="right">60</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">60</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Independent &amp; Unaffiliated</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">38,620</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">3,444</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">42,064</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Amish Mennonite</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,509</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,509</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Biblical Mennonite Alliance</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,993</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,993</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Reinland Mennonite (All Groups)</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,200</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">3,874</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">5,074</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>New Reinland Mennonite (Ontario)</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">260</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">260</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Markham-Waterloo Mennonite Conference|Markham-Waterloo Conference]]</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,400</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,400</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>La Crete Bergthaler (Alberta)</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,000</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,000</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Bergthaler Mennonite (Saskatchewan)</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">777</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">777</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Total</strong></td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>155,931</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>48,674</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>204,605</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>339,200</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>117,787</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>456,987</strong></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Brethren in Christ Church |Brethren in Christ***]]</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">7,066</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">22,901</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">3,728</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">26,629</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Hutterian Brethren (Hutterische Brüder)|Hutterian Brethren]]</td> <td> <div align="right">2,900</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">7,500</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">9,400</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">4,000</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">10,000</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">14,000</div> </td> </tr>  </table> </div> <blockquote> *Merged to form Mennonite Church USA and Mennonite Church Canada in 2002.
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2006</strong></div> </th> </tr> <tr> <td> <div align="left">[[Mennonite Church (MC)|Mennonite Church]]*</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">64,928</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">6,586</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">71,514</div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div align="right">110,696</div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div align="right">34,000</div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div align="right">144,696</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <div align="left">[[General Conference Mennonite Church (GCM)|General Conference Mennonite Church]]*</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">35,764</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">14,005</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">49,769</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <div align="left">[[Mennonite Brethren Church|Mennonite Brethren Church]]</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">11,095</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">12,967</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">24,062</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">33,498</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">35,770</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">69,268</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <div align="left">[[Old Order Amish|Old Order Amish]]</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">16,794</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">260</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">17,054</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">90,000</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,800</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">91,800</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <div align="left">[[Old Order Mennonites|Old Order Mennonite]]</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">3,887</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,915</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">5,802</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">20,300</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">3,000</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">23,300</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <div align="left">[[Church of God in Christ, Mennonite (CGC)|Church of God in Christ, Mennonite]]</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">4,161</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,439</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">5,600</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">13,560</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">4,540</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">18,100</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Conservative Mennonite Conference|Conservative Mennonite Conference]]</td> <td> <div align="right">5,585</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">5,585</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">11,199</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">11,199</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Mennonite Brethren in Christ Church of Pennsylvania|Mennonite Brethren in Christ (PA)]] (Bible Fellowship Church)</td> <td> <div align="right">4,635</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">4,635</div> </td> <td> <div align="right"> </div> </td> <td> <div align="right"> </div> </td> <td> <div align="right"> </div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Sommerfeld Mennonites|Sommerfelder]]</td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">3,785</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">3,785</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">4,590</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">4,590</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Beachy Amish Mennonite Fellowship|Beachy Amish]]</td> <td> <div align="right">2,677</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2,677</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">7,976</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">258</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">8,234</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Evangelical Mennonite Brethren ([[Fellowship of Evangelical Bible Churches|Fellowship of Evangelical Bible Churches]])</td> <td> <div align="right">1,564</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">936</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2,500</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2,031</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,748</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">3,779</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Evangelical Mennonite ([[Fellowship of Evangelical Churches|Fellowship of Evangelical Churches]])</td> <td> <div align="right">2,210</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2,210</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">5,981</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">5,981</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Old Colony Mennonites|Old Colony Mennonites]] (All groups)</td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2,155</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2,155</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">7,981</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">7,981</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Rudnerweide ([[Evangelical Mennonite Mission Conference (EMMC)|Evangelical Mennonite Mission Conference]])</td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,824</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,824</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">466</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">4,294</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">4,760</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Krimmer Mennonite Brethren|Krimmer Mennonite Brethren**]]</td> <td> <div align="right">1,527</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">176</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,703</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Chortitzer Mennonite Conference|Chortitzer Mennonite Conference ]]</td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,408</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,408</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,650</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,650</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Evangelical Mennonite Conference (Kleine Gemeinde)|Evangelical Mennonite Conference ]](Kleinegemeinde)</td> <td> <div align="right">25</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,000</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,025</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">7,270</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">7,270</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Reformed Mennonite Church|Reformed Mennonite Church]]</td> <td> <div align="right">662</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">218</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">880</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">171</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">131</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">302</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Stauffer Mennonite Church|Stauffer Mennonite Church]]</td> <td> <div align="right">357</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">357</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Weaver Mennonite Church</td> <td> <div align="right">60</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">60</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Independent &amp; Unaffiliated</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">38,620</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">3,444</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">42,064</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Amish Mennonite</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,509</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,509</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Biblical Mennonite Alliance</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,993</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,993</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Reinland Mennonite (All Groups)</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,200</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">3,874</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">5,074</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>New Reinland Mennonite (Ontario)</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">260</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">260</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Markham-Waterloo Mennonite Conference|Markham-Waterloo Conference]]</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,400</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,400</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>La Crete Bergthaler (Alberta)</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,000</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,000</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Bergthaler Mennonite (Saskatchewan)</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">0</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">777</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">777</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Total</strong></td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>155,931</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>48,674</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>204,605</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>339,200</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>117,787</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>456,987</strong></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Brethren in Christ Church |Brethren in Christ***]]</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">7,066</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">22,901</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">3,728</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">26,629</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>[[Hutterian Brethren (Hutterische Brüder)|Hutterian Brethren]]</td> <td> <div align="right">2,900</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">7,500</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">9,400</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">4,000</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">10,000</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">14,000</div> </td> </tr>  </table> </div> <blockquote>  
 +
 
 +
*Merged to form Mennonite Church USA and Mennonite Church Canada in 2002.
  
 
**Became part of Mennonite Brethren Church in 1960  
 
**Became part of Mennonite Brethren Church in 1960  
Line 45: Line 47:
 
<strong>Although the table has been updated, the commentary remains that of the 1957 article. </strong>
 
<strong>Although the table has been updated, the commentary remains that of the 1957 article. </strong>
  
</blockquote> The above table indicates that North American Mennonitism at the mid-20th century was not unified in one common fellowship. It is true that most, except the [[Old Colony Mennonites|Old Colony]] group in Manitoba and Mexico, the [[Reformed Mennonite Church|Reformed Mennonite Church]], and the [[Old Colony Mennonites|Old Colony Mennonites]] in the United States and Canada, cooperated organizationally in the [[Mennonite Central Committee (International)|Mennonite Central Committee]] in relief work, peace work, and service projects. But denominationally they remained distinct. The groups were, however, by no means all the result of divisions, at least in North America. The [[Old Order Amish|Old Order Amish]] division and the [[Mennonite Brethren Church|Mennonite Brethren]] and [[Krimmer Mennonite Brethren|Krimmer Mennonite Brethren]] divisions were imported from Europe and were maintained in North America. The latter two groups have merged, and a large block of the Old Order Amish gradually merged with the [[Mennonite Church (MC)|Mennonite Church]] branch. Of the groups formed by division in North America (see pertinent denominational articles) the [[Central Conference Mennonite Church|Central Conference]] merged with the [[General Conference Mennonite Church (GCM)|General Conference Mennonite]] branch (1950), the Evangelical Mennonite and Evangelical Mennonite Brethren groups worked together in a joint conference, and the Conservative Mennonites almost joined the Mennonite Church. The spirit of cooperation and mutual recognition was growing among the various major and minor groups, but no further organic union was in prospect in 1957.
+
</blockquote> The above table indicates that North American Mennonitism at the mid-20th century was not unified in one common fellowship. It is true that most, except the [[Old Colony Mennonites|Old Colony ]] group in Manitoba and Mexico, the [[Reformed Mennonite Church|Reformed Mennonite Church]], and the [[Old Colony Mennonites|Old Colony Mennonites]] in the United States and Canada, cooperated organizationally in the [[Mennonite Central Committee (International)|Mennonite Central Committee ]] in relief work, peace work, and service projects. But denominationally they remained distinct. The groups were, however, by no means all the result of divisions, at least in North America. The [[Old Order Amish|Old Order Amish]] division and the [[Mennonite Brethren Church|Mennonite Brethren]] and [[Krimmer Mennonite Brethren|Krimmer Mennonite Brethren]] divisions were imported from Europe and were maintained in North America. The latter two groups have merged, and a large block of the Old Order Amish gradually merged with the [[Mennonite Church (MC)|Mennonite Church]] branch. Of the groups formed by division in North America (see pertinent denominational articles) the [[Central Conference Mennonite Church|Central Conference]] merged with the [[General Conference Mennonite Church (GCM)|General Conference Mennonite]] branch (1950), the Evangelical Mennonite and Evangelical Mennonite Brethren groups worked together in a joint conference, and the Conservative Mennonites almost joined the Mennonite Church. The spirit of cooperation and mutual recognition was growing among the various major and minor groups, but no further organic union was in prospect in 1957.
  
 
The history of North American Mennonitism cannot well be viewed as a whole, not only because of the lack of organic union, but also in part because of difference in time of arrival of the successive waves of immigrants, and in part because of the relative isolation geographically and culturally of the various groups from one another. The national boundary between Canada and the United States has had little significance. However, a more detailed account of the general and spiritual history of the North American Mennonites will be found under the articles [[Canada|Canada]] and [[United States of America|United States]], so divided for convenience only.
 
The history of North American Mennonitism cannot well be viewed as a whole, not only because of the lack of organic union, but also in part because of difference in time of arrival of the successive waves of immigrants, and in part because of the relative isolation geographically and culturally of the various groups from one another. The national boundary between Canada and the United States has had little significance. However, a more detailed account of the general and spiritual history of the North American Mennonites will be found under the articles [[Canada|Canada]] and [[United States of America|United States]], so divided for convenience only.

Revision as of 06:51, 15 October 2013

The first Mennonites in North America were Dutch "Menists" reported to be in Manhattan (now New York City) and Gravesend, Long Island, near New York City, as early as 1644. Nothing is known of them except these reports, and no permanent settlement was made. Pieter Cornelisz Plockhoy's ill-starred colony on the Delaware, south of Chester, Pennsylvania (1663-1665), was scarcely Mennonite. Permanent Mennonite settlement began in 1683 (really not until 1685) at Germantown, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with a small group from the Lower Rhine and Hamburg (ca. 100 families 1683-1705). The major immigration began in 1707-1710 from the Palatinate and Switzerland into the territory north and west of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, continuing until about 1756, when it was relatively stopped by the French and Indian War (1756-1763), and was not resumed in force until after the close of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. By that time Eastern Pennsylvania was filled, and the new groups located west of the Alleghenies and on west to central Illinois or to Ontario. The major element in the migration of 1815-1860 was of Amish from Alsace, Bavaria, and Hesse, although also a considerable body of Swiss came in this period to Ohio and Indiana. While the German and Swiss immigration slowed to a trickle after this, a very large migration from Russia brought another ethnic group to North America in 1874-1880, followed by a later, still larger movement from Russia in 1922-1925, a small one 1930-1939, and a larger one again in 1947-1950. A minor movement of this ethnic element came from South America (chiefly Paraguay) to North America in 1950-1957. (For a fuller account, see Migrations.)

Until 1824 all Mennonite immigrants from Europe to America settled only in the United States. Internal migration from Eastern Pennsylvania to Ontario in 1785-1840 established a substantial Mennonite base there. This furnished the attraction for all later substantial Mennonite movements to Canada. First were the Amish from Alsace-Lorraine and Bavaria in 1824-1850, located adjacent to the Pennsylvania Mennonites west of Kitchener. The very large migration from Russia to Manitoba in 1874-1880 was made possible largely by the leadership of Jacob Y. Shantz, a Mennonite of Kitchener, and the financial aid of the Ontario Mennonites. The large later movements from Russia to Canada (almost all the Russian immigrants of 1922-1925 and later came to Canada) were made possible largely by the aid of Russian Mennonites already in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. The freer immigration policy of the Canadian government, in contrast to the restrictive policy of the United States, together with the greater availability of land for settlement in Canada, of course played a major role in the diversion of the 20th-century immigration to Canada. Since 1880 almost no Mennonites have immigrated to the United States, whereas the majority of the Canadian Mennonites are descendants of immigrants who arrived after 1920. This fact, coupled with the conservatism of the Manitoba Mennonites in general resulted in longer retention of the German language among the Canadian Mennonites (with the exception of Ontario), in contrast to the United States where the use of German was effectively ended by World War I.

The third country of North America to have Mennonite settlements, Mexico, received them first in 1922 from Manitoba. Except for a very few who came from Russia in 1922-1925, all Mennonites in Mexico came from Manitoba and Saskatchewan. All of them are of Russian origin, and all have maintained the German language, including the Kleine Gemeinde group, which came from Manitoba in 1947-1949. The only substantial Mennonite emigration from North America has been that of the Old Colony Mennonites from Manitoba and Saskatchewan in 1926-30 (later groups 1945-1948) who went to Paraguay.

Internal migration has scattered the Mennonites of North America westward from Pennsylvania, the east-central states, and the midwestern and prairie states and provinces to the Pacific Coast in both the United States and Canada.

In 1956 North America had 215,000 baptized Mennonites, with a total population of some 300,000. The baptized members were distributed as follows by groups and countries.

North American Mennonite Population

Compiler: Harold S. Bender (author of the article) and Sam Steiner (2006 figures)

Table 1. Distribution of Mennonite Membership

by Group and Country, 1956 & 2006

Body
United

States

1956
Canada 1956
Total 1956
United

States

2006
Canada 2006
Total 2006
64,928
6,586
71,514
110,696
34,000
144,696
35,764
14,005
49,769
11,095
12,967
24,062
33,498
35,770
69,268
16,794
260
17,054
90,000
1,800
91,800
3,887
1,915
5,802
20,300
3,000
23,300
4,161
1,439
5,600
13,560
4,540
18,100
Conservative Mennonite Conference
5,585
0
5,585
11,199
0
11,199
Mennonite Brethren in Christ (PA) (Bible Fellowship Church)
4,635
0
4,635
 
 
 
Sommerfelder
0
3,785
3,785
0
4,590
4,590
Beachy Amish
2,677
0
2,677
7,976
258
8,234
Evangelical Mennonite Brethren (Fellowship of Evangelical Bible Churches)
1,564
936
2,500
2,031
1,748
3,779
Evangelical Mennonite (Fellowship of Evangelical Churches)
2,210
0
2,210
5,981
0
5,981
Old Colony Mennonites (All groups)
0
2,155
2,155
0
7,981
7,981
Rudnerweide (Evangelical Mennonite Mission Conference)
0
1,824
1,824
466
4,294
4,760
Krimmer Mennonite Brethren**
1,527
176
1,703
     
Chortitzer Mennonite Conference
0
1,408
1,408
0
1,650
1,650
Evangelical Mennonite Conference (Kleinegemeinde)
25
1,000
1,025
0
7,270
7,270
Reformed Mennonite Church
662
218
880
171
131
302
Stauffer Mennonite Church
357
0
357
     
Weaver Mennonite Church
60
0
60
     
Independent & Unaffiliated      
38,620
3,444
42,064
Amish Mennonite      
1,509
0
1,509
Biblical Mennonite Alliance      
1,993
0
1,993
Reinland Mennonite (All Groups)      
1,200
3,874
5,074
New Reinland Mennonite (Ontario)      
0
260
260
Markham-Waterloo Conference      
0
1,400
1,400
La Crete Bergthaler (Alberta)      
0
1,000
1,000
Bergthaler Mennonite (Saskatchewan)      
0
777
777
Total
155,931
48,674
204,605
339,200
117,787
456,987
Brethren in Christ***    
7,066
22,901
3,728
26,629
Hutterian Brethren
2,900
7,500
9,400
4,000
10,000
14,000
  • Merged to form Mennonite Church USA and Mennonite Church Canada in 2002.
    • Became part of Mennonite Brethren Church in 1960
      • 1956 number from Yearbook of American Churches, 1958

Source: Mennonite Yearbook and Directory, 1957; Mennonite World Conference website, 2007. 

Although the table has been updated, the commentary remains that of the 1957 article.

The above table indicates that North American Mennonitism at the mid-20th century was not unified in one common fellowship. It is true that most, except the Old Colony group in Manitoba and Mexico, the Reformed Mennonite Church, and the Old Colony Mennonites in the United States and Canada, cooperated organizationally in the Mennonite Central Committee in relief work, peace work, and service projects. But denominationally they remained distinct. The groups were, however, by no means all the result of divisions, at least in North America. The Old Order Amish division and the Mennonite Brethren and Krimmer Mennonite Brethren divisions were imported from Europe and were maintained in North America. The latter two groups have merged, and a large block of the Old Order Amish gradually merged with the Mennonite Church branch. Of the groups formed by division in North America (see pertinent denominational articles) the Central Conference merged with the General Conference Mennonite branch (1950), the Evangelical Mennonite and Evangelical Mennonite Brethren groups worked together in a joint conference, and the Conservative Mennonites almost joined the Mennonite Church. The spirit of cooperation and mutual recognition was growing among the various major and minor groups, but no further organic union was in prospect in 1957.

The history of North American Mennonitism cannot well be viewed as a whole, not only because of the lack of organic union, but also in part because of difference in time of arrival of the successive waves of immigrants, and in part because of the relative isolation geographically and culturally of the various groups from one another. The national boundary between Canada and the United States has had little significance. However, a more detailed account of the general and spiritual history of the North American Mennonites will be found under the articles Canada and United States, so divided for convenience only.


Bibliography

Bender, Harold S. "The Mennonites of the United States and Canada." Mennonite Quarterly Review 11 (1937): 50-75.

Smith, C. Henry. The Mennonites of America. Goshen, IN, 1909.

Smith, C. Henry. The Story of the Mennonites. Berne, IN, 1941.


Author(s) Harold S Bender
Date Published 1957


Cite This Article

MLA style

Bender, Harold S. "North America." Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. 1957. Web. 21 Nov 2014. http://gameo.org/index.php?title=North_America&oldid=102578.

APA style

Bender, Harold S. (1957). North America. Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved 21 November 2014, from http://gameo.org/index.php?title=North_America&oldid=102578.




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