Plockhoy, Pieter Cornelisz (1620?-1700?)
Living in the "Golden Age" of Dutch political independence and cultural achievement, Plockhoy came to Amsterdam from the city of Zierikzee in Zeeland, as did also Galenus Abrahamsz de Haan, the noted physician and minister of the Amsterdam Mennonite Church. These two men were both influenced by the Collegiant movement and were associated in bringing into the Amsterdam Church Collegiant ideas, which caused much dissension and eventually divided the church into the Lamists and Zonists. Plockhoy was also associated with a radical Collegiant group of poets in Amsterdam known as the Reformateurs. In the light of his Collegiant connections he has little significance in the history of thoroughgoing Mennonitism except as a by-product of the transitory period of the Amsterdam congregation in 1650-64.
In Puritan England Plockhoy has more significance as a religious and social reformer during the late months of the Cromwell government. He published various editions of the following two tracts dated 1659:
1. The Way to the Peace and Settlement of these Nations fully discovered . . . published the letters that he had submitted to the Cromwell government in his attempt to reform in the area of the state church by supplanting it with all-embracing interdenominational assemblies based on principles of freedom, discussion, and toleration, all of which were typical Collegiant ideas. His attempt at reform on such a big scale had little chance for success.
2. A Way Propounded to Make the Poor in these and other Nations Happy . . . comprised an alternative scheme with more practicality as a solution to the immediate socio-economic needs of the day. It was a plan for co-operative settlements with communitarian production and consumption. Although colonies were actually begun in London, Southampton, and Ireland, and others were projected for locations in the Isles and even on the Continent, the Restoration of Charles II in 1660 put an end to these and other reform movements of the English revolutionary period. There is some evidence that in England Plockhoy had connections with other radical reformers of this period: Levellers Giles Calvert and William Walwyn; Utopian, Samuel Hartlib; and possibly the poet-statesman, John Milton.
Plockhoy's determination to establish communitarian settlements culminated in the planting of a colony of Dutch emigrants along the Delaware in New Netherlands in 1663, following a long series of negotiations with the Amsterdam burgomasters begun in 1661. In addition to the two English tracts mentioned above, there are also extant a third and fourth published in the Netherlands in 1662 and coming out of the negotiations in Amsterdam:
3. Kort Verhael van Nieuw Nederlant ... (Brief Account of New Netherlands) published the seven anonymous letters which Plockhoy and his company submitted to the burgomasters in petition for a colonization contract.
4. Kort en Klaer Ontwerp (Brief and Concise Plan) bears Plockhoy's signature and was the actual colonization prospectus that he published to enlist emigrants for his settlement. According to a separate document, a group of twenty-five "Mennists" had already been enlisted and promised financial support by the Amsterdam government. The identity of these Mennonites has never been established, and the colony was not itself a Mennonite colony in the usual sense. A settlement of 41 persons was made in America in 1663 at Horekill on the Delaware, but was destroyed after a brief year of existence in the Anglo-Dutch war of 1664. Plockhoy's active career apparently came to an abrupt end, due in part no doubt to the fact that he became blind. Although he and his wife continued to reside in the neighborhood of Lewes, Delaware, under English rule for thirty years, they finally sought and found refuge in the new Mennonite settlement at Germantown, Pennsylvania, where they lived as public charges for their last six or more years (1694-1700).
Doopsgezinde Bijdragen (1884): 76.
Harder, Leland and Marvin Harder. Plockhoy from Zurikzee. Newton, 1952.
Harder, Leland. "Pioneer of Christian Civilization in America." Mennonite Life 4 (January 1949).
Harder, Leland. "Plockhoy and His Settlement at Zwaanendael, 1663." Mennonite Quarterly Review 23 (1949): 186-199.
Hege, Christian and Christian Neff. Mennonitisches Lexikon, 4 vols. Frankfurt & Weierhof: Hege; Karlsruhe: Schneider, 1913-1967: v. III, 379.
Horst, Irvin B. "Pieter Cornelisz Plockhoy, An Apostle of the Collegiants." Mennonite Quarterly Review 23 (1949): 161-185.
Nieper, Friedrich. Die ersten deutschen Auswanderer von Krefeld nach Pennsylvanien. Neukirchen, 1940: 104.
Quack, H. P. De Socialisten. 1899: I, 186-207.
Smith, C. Henry. "Plockhoy and the Mennonite Colony on the Delaware." In The Mennonites in America. Goshen, IN: C. Henry Smith, 1909: 81-93.
Cite This Article
Harder, Leland. "Plockhoy, Pieter Cornelisz (1620?-1700?)." Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. 1959. Web. 19 Nov 2017. http://gameo.org/index.php?title=Plockhoy,_Pieter_Cornelisz_(1620%3F-1700%3F)&oldid=102939.
Harder, Leland. (1959). Plockhoy, Pieter Cornelisz (1620?-1700?). Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved 19 November 2017, from http://gameo.org/index.php?title=Plockhoy,_Pieter_Cornelisz_(1620%3F-1700%3F)&oldid=102939.
Adapted by permission of Herald Press, Harrisonburg, Virginia, from Mennonite Encyclopedia, Vol. 4, pp. 195-196. All rights reserved.
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